The human genome consists of DNA, a molecule that contains the instructions needed to build and maintain cells. For the instructions to be carried out, DNA must be “read” and transcribed into RNA transcripts that can be used to produce protein. The transcriptome is a collection of all the transcripts present in a cell. An important issue for molecular biology is to establish if transcript levels of a given gene can be used as proxies for the corresponding protein levels.
In the present study, the researchers have developed a mass spectrometry-based method that is sensitive and reproducible in order to measure, at steady-state conditions, absolute protein copy numbers across human tissues and cell lines and compared these levels with the corresponding mRNA levels using transcriptomics.
These new data suggest that transcriptome analysis can be used as a tool to predict the protein copy numbers per cell. Mathias Uhlen, the study leader and professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology/SciLifeLab, says:
“There are many efforts around the world to systematically determine the transcript levels in cells, tissues and organs, involving new technologies such as single cell genomics and spatial transcriptomics”. He continues: “Our data suggest that the knowledge-based transcriptomics resources created as part of these efforts will be valuable also for protein studies, thus forming an attractive link between the field of genomics and proteomics.”